THE CANADIAN JEWISH REVIEW
JANUARY 13, 1950
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DEVELOPMENTS IN JEWISH EDUCATION
By Dr. Uriah Zevi Engebnan, Director, Department of Research And Information, American Association For Jewish Education
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Henry C. Marks, seventy, one of the founders of the Howard Stores Corporation, operating a chain of clothing stores, died in New York at Doctors Hospital, East End Avenue and Eighty-seventh Street,
after a long illness. He "lived at 115 Central Park West.
Mr. Marks, born on the lower East Side, began his career in the clothing business as a designer and cutter for the now defunct firm of Moscowitz and Company. In 1916 he set up as a manufacturer of men's clothing in partnership with a salesman of the Moscowitz firm named Samuel Keppel under the name of &eppel and Marks. In 1925 this firm joined with Joseph Lftngerman, who had
Total enrollment in all Jewish schools (Sunday, weekday afternoon, Yiddish, and all-day) in the spring of 1949 was 255.8G5. Of this number, Sunday Schools had 128,-719 (52.3%); weekday schools, 122,109 (47.7%). The combined figures represent an increase of 6.9% over 1948 enrollments. Both Sunday and the weekday schools shared in the increase.
Sunday schools jumped their 1948 enrollment of 120,896 by 6.5%; weekday schools added 3% to the 1948 figure of 118,502. The weekday school enrollment consisted of 82,848 attending afternoon Hebrew schools (congregational and non-congregational), 18,654 attending all-day schools and about 17,000 attending Yiddish schools.
The number of seminary-graduated qualified teachers did not keep pace with the growth in enrollment. As a consequence a very large number of classes throughout the country are staffed with sub-standard teachers. Also, schools which carry on less intensive programs and which, in the past, have utilized unlicensed teachers have benefited by the increase in enrollment more than the intensive type of schools which insist on employing trained teachers.
The increased number of students is reflected largely in attendance at Sunday schools, the two and three-day a week congregational schools and�the kindergartens and the early grades of the all-day schools. The latter, though part of the most intensive type of Jewish school, have been receiving increasing numbers of children even though adequate provision for teachers could not be made. Of almost 5,000 children enrolled in the winter of 1948 in the Jewish all-day schools outside New-York City, more than one third (33.5%) were massed in the kindergarten classes.
The number of students stody-Het&Bw in the pubife tiffa' schools, according to Judah Lapson
a men's apparel store in Brooklyn, to establish the retailing and manufacturing concern of Howard Clothes. The corporation now operates forty-five stores in New York and other cities throughout the United States.
Mr. Marks served as vice-president, treasurer, and director of the company and was in charge of all manufacturing and styling phases of the business. He had been active in the firm up to two years ago when failing health caused him to ease up.
Mr. Marks had been technical adviser to the Quartermaster General of the Army during World War II. He was a founder and director of the New York Clothing Manufacturing Exchange and the Clothing Manufacturers Association of the United States. He was active in many civic and charitable organizations.
Mrs. S. A. Brailove, New Jersey civic leader, has been named chairman of the National Women's Division of the United Jewish Appeal, it was announced by Henry Morgenthau Jr., general chairmati. Mrs. Brailove succeeds Mrs. Ernest G. Wadel cf Dallas, Texas, \vho was killed in a plane crash at Dallas as she was returning from the national conference of the Appeal at Atlantic City, N'.J. Mrs. Brailove founded the Urban League in Elizabeth. N.J., and is a director of the Elizabeth Jewish Council.
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of the Jewish Culture Council of New York, has grown steadily during the past decade. In 1939 the Hebrew classes had an enrollment of 2,400. In 1949, there were 3,970, an increase of 65.4%. During this period the number enrolled for all foreign language courses in the New York public high schools decreased from 150,000 to slightly over 88,000.
What influence will emergence of the state of Israel have on Jewish education ? The consensus of Jewish educational though^ foresees two important developments : 1) an increasing spiritual and cultural inter-relationship between American Jewry and Israel; 2) a more generally optimistic attitude to lA and man's efforts on the part of Jewish educational workers. The widespread belief is that educational philosophy, which was colored in gruesome Nazi-war years with deep pessimism, will regain some of its faith in the ultimate outcome of mens aspirations and destiny, and that this will be reflected in the development of the Jewish school.
As for immediate developments: From a number of communities, (Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore, Duluth, St. Paul^Buffalo, Syracuse, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Memphis) came news of local and regional teachers' conferences at which the problem of revision of the Jewish school curriculum in the light of the new position of the Jewish people in the world was the main theme of discussion.
Out of 110 communities con-vassed, 54 reported an increase in the study of Hebrew, and in 42 of these communities in conversational Hebrew intended for prospective visitors to Israel. From a number of cities come reports of enhanced interest in Israeli geography, history, the United Nations, and the social problems of the State of Israel. The events in Israel bare ttfeitiftM it* �� of attfo-Yisnal nidi tff ax*t school*.
Influence* bearing on Inter-educational relationship between Israel and the United States are also apparent. Several educational workshops and seminars were held in Israel for American students and teachers. Among the more important ones were the workshop on Palestine life and culture given in Israel by the New York University School of Education in cooperation with the Katzenelson Institute of Social Studies, in Israel. Also a seminar for American teachers and principals was held in Jerusalem under the auspices of the Hebrew University and the World Union for Jewish Education.
A significant development in Jewish education has been the growth throughout the country of parent-teacher groups. A study by the American Association for Jewish Education revealed that in 83 communities 446 schools reported parent teacher associations.
American Jewish leadership is coming to realize that financing of Jewish education is a community responsibility and cannot be borne by the parents alone, or even by the congregations alone, and that it must be borne by all the elements in the community. A concrete expression of this awareness Js the increasing number of Federations and Welfare Funds which have been annually allocating funds for Jewish education.
In 1936, twenty-nine cities reported Federation and Welfare
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Funds allocations for Jewish education, in 1947, fifty-three cities reported such allocations. In 1936 the Federation subventions for Jewish education amounted to $523,749 or 6.13r'f of the total sum spent by the Federations for all local needs. In 1947 the amount subvented for Jewish education by the Federation was $2,181,417,-or 8.79 % of the total budgeted by Federations for all local needs.
The amount of money allocated for Jewish education through
Federation and Welfare Funds has increased proportionately faster than the amount of money allocated through the same channels for "all local needs".
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